Modern innovative construction technologies, striking the imagination with their originality and fantasticness, use both the achievements of the latest scientific research and the invaluable experience of their ancestors.
Let’s start with the most common building material – wood. It would seem that here you can still come up with a new one? But here, modern innovative technologies come to the rescue.
20 Innovative Technologies for Building Construction
Scientists of the Far Eastern Federal University create modern wooden dome houses. Moreover, as in the good old days of Russian architects, – without a single nail. Their uniqueness lies in the use of new lock designs between the individual parts of a wooden spherical frame.
A domed house of wooden parts is created in record time. Literally in a matter of hours, the frame of an unusual house grows. Today they want to test this technology in several cities of Russia. The links are joined together using a special lock that accepts all the loads – vertical, side, and so on. Parts are made with such precision that it turns out a kind of designer “Lego”. Any person with such a kit with a small assembly instruction can mount this structure on their own.
At one of the recreation centers in Primorsky Krai, the Snezhok express dome cafe, built by scientists, is already very popular, attracting visitors with an unusual shape. The second domed house is much larger – a two-story twelve-meter construction with an area of 195 m.
We all somehow got used to the fact that the tree is used for the construction of low houses, one or two floors. But US developers believe it is possible to use wood for the construction of buildings up to 30 floors high.
The first of modern residential buildings, built of wood using modern technologies of wooden housing construction (of five-layer wooden adhesive panels), has 9 floors and 30 meters in height. This house stands in London, it has 29 residential apartments and offices on the ground floor.
Surprisingly, the entire aboveground part of this house was built in 28 working days by only five people, armed with only one mobile crane and electric screwdrivers.
The technology consists of profiled thin-sized tree trunks, called “balance” by specialists, which are cut on a four-sided machine. The fact that the fineness meter is used clearly demonstrates the fact that in every exception the element must have a tree core.
Then from such “puzzles” you can assemble any part of the building. Drying, individual elements are deformed and wedged tightly, creating a very strong and lightweight construction. The purpose of the invention of this technology is the use of low-quality raw materials, which, for example, in Russia go only to cellulose or generally just waste.
Chinese architects have invented a way to build cheap homes. Their secret is in a huge 3D printer that literally prints real estate. And this would not be unusual – the technology of “printing” buildings is already known. But the fact is that Chinese houses will be made … of construction waste.
Thus, the specialists of the architectural company Winsun intend to solve two problems at once. In addition to creating inexpensive houses, the project will give a second life to construction waste and industrial waste – this is what houses are made of.
The giant printer has really impressive dimensions – 150 x 10 x 6 meters. The device is quite powerful and can print up to 10 houses per day. The cost of each of them is not more than 5 thousand dollars.
A huge machine erects an external structure, and internal partitions are mounted manually later. With the help of 3D printing technology in the Middle Kingdom, they hope to solve the urgent problem of affordable housing. Soon, several hundred factories will appear in the country, on which consumables for a giant printer will be produced from construction waste.
Dus Architects has developed a project to print a residential building on a 3D bioplastics printer. Construction is being carried out using the industrial KarmaMaker 3D printer, which “prints” plastic walls. The construction of the building is very unusual – walls are attached to the three-meter end of the house, as in the Lego constructor. If a redevelopment of the building is required, then it can be easily changed by replacing one part with another.
For construction, a bioplastics developed by Henkel is used – a mixture of vegetable oil and microfiber, and the foundation of the house will be made of lightweight concrete. Upon completion, the building will consist of thirteen separate rooms. This technology can change the entire construction industry. Old residential buildings and offices can simply be “melted down” and make something new out of them.
The idea of such material was found in ordinary shells. The fact is that shells are enriched with the necessary complex of minerals that give them elasticity. It is these minerals that are added to the composition of concrete. A new type of concrete is incredibly elastic, more resistant to cracks, and even 40-50 percent lighter. Such concrete will not break even with very strong bends. Even earthquakes are not afraid of him. An extensive network of cracks after such tests will not affect its strength. After removing the load, the concrete will begin the recovery process.
How does this happen? The secret is very simple. Regular rainwater, when reacted with concrete and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, contributes to the formation of calcium carbonate in concrete. This substance also fixes the cracks that appear, “heals” the concrete. After removing the load, the restored section of the slab will have the same strength as before. They intend to introduce such concrete in the construction of critical structures, such as bridges.
The Canadian company CarbonCure Technologies has developed an innovative technology for the production of concrete by binding carbon dioxide. This technology will reduce harmful emissions and could revolutionize the construction industry.
For the production of concrete blocks, carbon dioxide is used, emitted by large enterprises such as oil refineries and fertilizer plants.
The new technology allows to achieve a triple effect: concrete will be cheaper, stronger and more environmentally friendly. One hundred thousand such concrete blocks will be able to absorb as much carbon dioxide as one hundred mature trees will absorb in a year.
Thatched houses are being built around the world using modern technology. Reliable, warm, comfortable, they perfectly stood the test of our climate. However, until now, few people know the modern construction technology of pressed straw (in the West it is called strawbale-house). It is based on the best properties of this unique natural material. When pressed, it becomes an excellent building material. Pressed straw is considered the best insulation. Straw plant stems are tubular, hollow. They and between them contain air, which, as you know, is characterized by low thermal conductivity. Due to its porosity, straw has good soundproofing properties.
It seems that the phrase “fireproof thatched house” sounds paradoxical. But the fire on the plastered wall of straw is not terrible. Blocks coated with plaster can withstand 2 hours of exposure to open flame. A straw block, open on one side only, does not support combustion. Density of compaction of a bale of 200-300 kg / cubic m also prevents burning.
Houses from straw are being built in America, Europe, China. In the USA there is even a project for the construction of a straw skyscraper with 40 floors. The tallest houses made of straw today are five-story buildings that are combined with reinforced concrete and metal frames.
Truly everything new is really well forgotten old. Popularity is again gaining homes from the earthman. This material is used today for the construction of supporting structures and walls.
At the heart of the earthbit is ordinary earthen soil. Zemlybit passed the testing of time, it was built from it in ancient Rome. Earthy ground mass has high moisture resistance and practically does not shrink. And the thermotechnical characteristics of the earthbit can be enhanced by the addition of, for example, straw cuts. A few years later, earthbit becomes almost as strong as concrete.
The most famous building built from earthbit can be considered the Priory Palace located in Gatchina.
Since 2003, the Kopeysk brick factory has been producing bricks, nicknamed “velor” for the ability to literally absorb light on its surface, as a result of which it becomes saturated, resembling velvet.
The effect is achieved using vertical grooves applied to the surface of the brick with metal brushes. In this case, it becomes possible to deepen the main color when changing the angle of incidence of light, which likens a brick to a chameleon – at different times of the day it is able to change color depending on lighting.
The texture of the velor brick works perfectly in tandem with smooth brick in ornamental or curly masonry.
Japan does not cease to amaze with its developments. The idea is simple – that the house does not collapse as a result of an earthquake, it just … should not be on the ground. So they came up with flying houses, and all this is quite real.
Undoubtedly, the word “flying” is a beautiful allegory, which leads to children’s dreams of flying in a house-balloon. But the Japanese design company Air Danshin Systems Inc has developed a system that allows buildings to rise above the ground and “hover” above it during an earthquake
The house is located on an air cushion and after triggering the sensors, it will simply hover above the ground, and during this change, the residents of the building will not feel anything. The foundation is not attached to the structure itself. After hovering, the house sits on a frame located on top of the foundation. During an earthquake, seismic sensors are activated, which are located around the perimeter of the building. Then they will immediately start the discharge compressor, located in the base of the house. He will provide the “levitation” of the building at a height of 3-4 cm from the ground. Thus, the house will not be in contact with the ground and will avoid the effects of tremors. The novelty is already installed in almost 90 houses in Japan.
“Flying houses” were developed by many Japanese companies; in the near future, know-how will also appear in other regions of Asia, which often suffer from earthquakes.
Spent containers have long been used for the construction of budget housing in different cities and countries. Here is one example.
During the construction of the house, eight old sea containers were used, which created an unusual architectural form of the building. In addition to containers, wood, polycarbonate and glass were also used. The total area of the house is 208 square meters.
The cost of building such “container type” economy houses is usually half the cost of building a similar house from ordinary building materials. In addition, it is being built twice as fast.
If residential buildings from containers have not surprised anyone for a long time, then a completely unusual building has appeared in the center of the business and commercial district of Seoul. They built it from 28 old shipping containers.
The area is 415 square meters. m. The complex will host exhibitions, night film screenings, concerts, master classes, lectures and other public events.
Amsterdam went even further. And in a relatively short time, a thousand (!) Old sea containers, which are enough in this port city, turned into real student modular hostels.
Each separate container room has all the amenities. In addition, an effective drainage system is installed on the roof, which collects rainwater, which subsequently goes to household needs.
In Finland and other northern countries, hotels are being built with might and main from ice. At the same time, a room in an ice hotel costs more than a hotel from other, more traditional building materials. The ice hotel was first opened in Sweden over 60 years ago.
In the construction of such mobile structures, a variety of technologies are used. A feature of this house is its complete energy independence. Solar panels are mounted on the surface of the facility for energy production, which completely provides a unique house with the required amount. By the way, the house is not only environmentally friendly, but also completely mobile.
The eco-house is divided into two sections – in one sleeping space, and in the other – a toilet. Outside the house is covered with environmentally friendly cork.
The project was developed by architects from the company NAU (Switzerland), who sought to make the most comfortable and compact housing. The capsule room, called Living Roof, can be placed on almost any surface.
The capsule room is equipped with solar panels, wind turbines and a rainwater collection, storage and recycling system.
Bosco Verticale’s innovative project is the construction in Milan of two multi-story buildings with living plants on the facade. The height of two high-rise buildings is 80 and 112 meters. In total, 480 trees of large and medium sizes, 250 trees of small height, 5,000 various shrubs and 11,000 plants forming the grass cover were planted on them. Such a number of plants corresponds to an area of 10,000 m ordinary forest.
Thanks to almost two-year research work by botanists, the species of trees that are most adapted to such difficult living conditions at altitude have been successfully selected. Various plants were specially grown and acclimatized for this construction. Each apartment in the house has its own balcony with trees and shrubs.
In Rotterdam, a luxury 19-story residential building is under construction. It got its original name because of its resemblance to this prickly plant. There are 98 apartments with high comfort. Construction is carried out according to the project of the architectural company UCX Architects.
The peculiarity of this house is the use of open terraces-balconies for hanging gardens, arranged one above the other in a stepwise order, screwed up in a spiral. This arrangement of terraces allows the sun to illuminate plants from all sides. The depth of each terrace is at least two meters. Moreover, small balconies will also be built into these balconies.
We are used to talking about energy-efficient homes. And in preparation for the Expo 2020 exhibition, a whole energy-efficient city will be built in the United Arab Emirates. It will be a “smart city”, fully providing itself with energy and other resources. The project is planned to be implemented near the village of Al Avir in Dubai.
It will become the first of its kind absolutely self-sufficient city in terms of providing residents with all the necessary resources, transport and energy. To do this, the energy-efficient city will be equipped with solar panels to the maximum, which will be placed on the roofs of almost all residential and commercial buildings. In addition, the city will independently process 40,000 cubic meters of wastewater. The area of this super complex will be 14,000 hectares, and the residential area itself will be built in the form of a desert flower. Surrounded by a belt of green spaces, the “smart city” will be able to host 160,000 inhabitants.