The process of building multi-storey buildings using monolithic technology
The construction process is divided into several stages, which ultimately affects the time. Despite this, multi-storey buildings are increasingly being built using monolithic technology.
The main stages of the construction of multi-storey buildings using monolithic technology
Any construction of a multi-storey building using monolithic technology is a lengthy and painstaking procedure. Moreover, this applies not only to the construction work itself, but also to the approval of the project and other paper documentation.
Consider the main stages of the construction of a monolithic high-rise building:
- 1. Perhaps the most difficult stage is not just related to construction. First you need to get a building permit and choose a suitable plot. Then comes the difficult period of coordination of disputed issues with the local administration (given the complexity of the urban construction sector, this stage will take a huge amount of time and nerves).
- 2. Geological and topological exploration is carried out on the allocated land plot . It is necessary to correctly determine the type of soil and its composition, the depth of groundwater, the level of soil freezing and other important indicators.
Excavation pit for a residential building Pile field for a monolithic house
Removable formwork Removable wall formwork
- 3. An extremely important step is the development of a multi-storey building project . It includes all the necessary documentation for the construction: material calculation, engineering systems, sections, floor plans, final estimate. The project is the last paper document and after it the stages of construction work begin.
- 4. The site is broken down and the preparatory work for the preparation of the foundation starts. It is necessary to dig a pit and drive in piles under the foundation. After this, the installation of the frame from the reinforcement begins (use a rod of rectangular or circular cross section). When building a multi-storey building using monolithic technology, the frame plays an important role – it gives the structure the necessary rigidity.
- 5. Running the installation of removable formwork made of wooden boards, Styrofoam or plastic. You can use ready-made formwork. At the end of the assembly, concrete mortar is poured with further ramming (use deep vibrators). Now it remains to wait for the complete drying and hardening of the mixture, after which the formwork is dismantled. In order to speed up the process, various additives can be used. By this principle, they build floor by floor.
- 6. Insulation and decoration of the facade is carried out after the complete drying of the last layer of concrete. It takes at least 28 days, and in wet and cold weather even more.
- 7. At the final stage, the house is connected to all necessary communications. After this, the area adjacent to the house is ennobled.
Fixed formwork (example) Construction of a multi-storey building using monolithic technology
The advantages of monolithic apartment buildings
Monolithic high-rise buildings have obvious advantages compared to brick and panel analogues.
- First of all, it is worth highlighting their reliability and compactness.
- An important component is external attractiveness.
- The insulated and plastered monolithic high-rise building looks much better than a panel or brick one.
- In addition, very often during the construction of a multi-storey building using monolithic technology, additional architectural techniques and elements are used: ledges, bay windows, curved walls, window openings with original geometry.
- One of the key benefits is durability. Thanks to the special construction technology, the monolithic design has fewer joints, which can significantly increase the life of the unit. Such buildings can be built in seismically active areas.
- Monolithic high-rise buildings are ideal as objects with a developed infrastructure. In the basement and first floors there is the possibility of arranging retail outlets, sports facilities, parking lots and other institutions.
The disadvantages of monolithic skyscrapers
The disadvantages include reasons not related to the operational characteristics of buildings. The main negative point is the likelihood of a shift in the deadline for completion of the facility. This happens due to incorrect miscalculation or when the weather conditions worsen. This may include the complexity of the work, because not every company can master a monolithic structure.
It may seem that, taking into account the above characteristics, the cost of such a house is several times higher than the budget of similar buildings made of panels and bricks. In fact, their cost is approximately equal, and with a well-designed project it may be lower. Analysis of the real estate market shows that housing prices in monolithic high-rise buildings are 10-15% lower. Thus, this property can be considered an excellent investment.
Along with modern building materials, manufacturing is practiced … By operational characteristics, gas blocks are many times better than bricks. Their process … High-rise buildings consisting entirely of aerated concrete blocks practically do not …
The first panel 5-storey residential buildings in the USSR began to appear in the mid-1950s during the period of mass urbanization. Today, new panel housing technologies are replacing outdated methods.
The main plus of the construction of reinforced concrete panels is the speed of construction. In comparison with a brick, a panel house was built on average three times faster. At the same time, such a house had a lot of disadvantages, the main of which were high heat loss and poor sound insulation. In addition, buildings made of reinforced concrete panels were built according to standard designs and were devoid of individuality, and there was no question of redevelopment of the internal space.
The technology of panel frameless construction is still widely used. Its essence is the construction of a house from finished reinforced concrete structures made in a production environment. Of course, many new projects appeared. The new technology of prefabricated houses made it possible to reach 9-10 floors, and thanks to the use of heat and sound insulating materials, disadvantages were eliminated.
Panel houses remain relevant due to the relatively low cost. They usually build up sleeping areas, providing housing to a wide range of consumers.
Frame and panel construction
For the first time, the technology began to be used for the construction of industrial buildings, and later adapted for the construction of administrative and educational institutions.
The frame was reinforced concrete columns with support ledges on which horizontal two-beam beams were fixed. Walls, ceilings and coatings rested on these beams.
The frame performed the function of the supporting structure, transferring the load from the wall and floor panels to the foundation foundations. Frame buildings had a more extensive architecture, but were limited by the height of the columns used.
Currently, frame-panel construction is widespread. At the same time, new technologies of panel housing construction have changed greatly, retaining only the principle of separation of load-bearing and protective structures.
Steelwork began to be used as a frame, and lightweight composite SIP panels replaced the wall reinforced concrete panels. The technology has become popular in the civil engineering of 1-3-story buildings.
Welded or bolted frame structures do not require time to solidify the mortar, and the panels are installed quickly without the use of welding or binders. Lightweight construction allows you to save on the foundation, making it less massive.
Frame houses are especially popular in the private sector. Private and country houses are often performed on a frame of wooden beams. As a wall external fence, a moisture-resistant OSB is used, and from the inside more often drywall. The internal space is filled with thermal insulation material (polystyrene, cellulose or basalt slabs) with moisture insulation on the outside and vapor barrier on the inside.
The choice of exterior cladding is unlimited here. Walls can be plastered or sheathed with any cladding material. Such a house is notable for its simplicity of design, the ability to create any layouts and relatively low cost. In addition, lightness allows you to mount it on screw piles or pillar foundations.
The monolithic structure is distinguished by the step-by-step formation of the structure directly on the construction site by pouring concrete into the formwork. Modern formwork is a portable modular structure and allows you to form any form of complexity. Although it is almost impossible to meet a “pure monolith”. Often in monolithic construction, finished products are used – staircases, floor slabs. Internal partitions are made of traditional materials or drywall on a profile frame.
In comparison with the panel and even more so the frame, the monolithic building takes longer to build. But the house is characterized by unlimited architecture, and due to its solidity it can reach 16-20 floors.
Recently, the monolithic method has become popular in private construction. Until recently, the techniques were suitable for the construction of only basement structures, since the private trader, having no formwork modules, assembled formwork from boards.
This was a very laborious and lengthy process. The idea of fixed formwork, which forms a structure and at the same time becomes a part of it, has changed the concept of private monoliths.
Hollow polystyrene blocks, panels or cerebral palsy slabs as fixed formwork
Such a block can be called the hundredth formwork structure. The unit has a hollow structure bounded by an external and internal wall, which are interconnected by jumpers. Blocks are assembled into walls, like a constructor, by assembling small protrusions and blind holes.
Then reinforcement is placed in the cavity in the blocks and concrete is poured. The result is a monolith with walls covered with polystyrene foam. It remains only to complete the lining on both sides and erect the roof.
Such houses can reach 3 floors, and a one-story summer house without internal work is built in 3 days.
Formwork for one-story buildings can also be built from rigid polystyrene plates by placing a reinforcing structure between them and stitching them with stainless steel or galvanized wire. For these purposes, wood-cement panels (cerebral palsy) are also used.
Monolithic panel construction
This is one of the newest technologies of panel housing construction. Architects managed to combine the best qualities of frame and monolithic construction. In this case, the frame is monolithic, representing supporting columns and ceilings.
Moreover, the overlap can go beyond the contours of the columns. The frame of the building must comply with the design and have a design bearing capacity, and its format is almost unlimited. The lack of application of standard elements allows you to create each project individually.
As a result, each new skyscraper surprises with a special design.
Monolithic-panel technology requires complex individual calculations, the use of modern machinery and equipment, and therefore refers to expensive construction. Such houses are considered elite and housing in them is still available only to a limited circle of the population.
As the walls can be used a wide variety of materials from foam blocks to translucent metal structures. The layout of the internal space is laid down by the project, but may change during the construction process or during redevelopment. The separation of the premises inside the house is done by partitions that do not perform a supporting function, so they can be installed in any configuration. Studio apartments, two-level apartments, installation of panoramic windows are possible.
Administrative buildings constructed in this way, using continuous glazing of the facade, resemble a huge mirror and add a touch of modernity to the architectural design of the city.
When choosing a suitable project for a future home, developers primarily focus on the speed of installation work, because for a modern person, any delay seems a serious problem – these are the realities of our fast-paced life.
It is also important that we all do not want to face unpleasant moments that can be caused by seasonal changes in the weather, as this will negatively affect the terms of commissioning of the object, and the desire to quickly find a new home makes us accelerate.
That is why people are increasingly becoming interested in new technologies in the construction of private houses.
Modern technologies in construction
Now let’s talk about the practical aspect, because it is also important. For example, you rent a construction tool, for which you need to pay a fee on a daily basis, who wants to overpay? This is where improved solutions come to the rescue, allowing you to implement a typical project in just two or three months. So what do the authors of innovative developments offer us, and what can we successfully implement at our construction site?
Modern and popular technology
Immediately we want to draw your attention to the fact that new technologies and high-tech building materials are different concepts, although they are on the same plane .
For example, foam concrete blocks, wooden logs and OSB boards are products that have recently appeared, but this is by no means a technology for building a house, another way is their installation.
Here you have a non-standard approach to the usual construction process, and improving the operational performance of private houses, but let’s talk about everything in order.
This abbreviation is more familiar to us under the name of “folk”, also known as “movable formwork”, and it completely sounds: Technology of Individual Construction and Ecology. This invention belongs entirely to our compatriots, which is doubly pleasant. The main advantage of this innovative approach is that you can build a house with your own hands, without the help of specialists.
The modern construction of private houses based on this method is characterized by the filling of pile or column foundations, often understaffed with a grillage. Your main tool at this stage will be the drill, which was specially developed for TISE.
The walls of such houses are assembled from lightweight hollow blocks that are formed directly on the construction site with the help of modular formwork, which must be periodically moved. The whole point of the construction method is that you fix the modules (forms) in the place where the wall of the house will be, and pour concrete into them . When the solution hardens, the modules are removed and transferred to a new location.
If you all decide to build such a structure, then you will certainly be pleased with the absence of the so-called cold bridges, which modern developers are struggling with varying degrees of success. Also, you do not need a whole team of builders, because this kind of construction does not require more than 2 – 3 people, including the owner of the house, and even then only for individual processes (moving formwork, drilling soil).
The choice of an apartment is a responsible procedure, on which depends how comfortable it will be to live. Many factors are taken into account, starting from the location of the object, layout, total area and ending with the type of building being built. The most popular and prefabricated is panel housing construction, which has undergone significant changes in recent years. Understanding when buying an apartment how panel houses are built will help you choose the most optimal option for the quality of the structure and price category.
Features of the construction of buildings
The need for large-scale development of prefabricated buildings was an incentive for the development of panel housing, which was mastered in the last century during the Soviet era.
The proven technology for the construction of houses from prefabricated reinforced concrete panels produced at specialized factories has been used before and continues to be used today in the construction of administrative buildings and housing.
The construction of a building from block structures has found recognition and is widely used in world practice, since time costs are minimized, and in terms of strength, such houses are superior to structures built using monolithic technology.
The necessary conditions for the construction of houses from reinforced concrete panels are:
- summing up road tracks with the possibility of passing heavy special equipment for the delivery of panel structures that weigh up to nine tons;
- crane equipment makes special demands on the width of access roads;
- construction sites are long, so large residential complexes are being erected at the same time.
Modern panel houses have the main advantages:
- low cost of housing, that is, the price of an apartment in a panel house is much lower than in a brick house;
- due to the finished blocks delivered to the construction site, the construction time is reduced compared to the monolithic technology, where the filling is carried out at the construction site;
- panels have door and window blocks; channels for internal wiring of communications are provided;
- smooth walls do not require the application of thick layers of corrective plaster;
- lack of shrinkage after commissioning allows you to immediately make repairs;
- no distortions and other defects;
- excellent durability of all assembly elements produced on an industrial scale.
Despite the advent of new technologies, the construction of prefabricated houses remains popular for budget housing. Some technological changes in the decoration of facades have been introduced, which compensate for the shortcomings of old designs. The clear structural geometry of each section limits the possibilities of diversity and does not allow the use of free layout. Today, there are already some projects that eliminate this drawback.
Important! Depending on the number of storeys of the building and the conditions for erecting the panels, in comparison with monolithic structures, they have the best quality and reliability.
Features of panel buildings
Modern buildings from reinforced concrete panels are divided into structures with and without a frame. Frame-panel houses have a full or internal frame. Frameless analogues include large-panel structures.
With a full frame, the building is constructed using external supports and overlappings of ribbed panels. To the existing racks, other panel parts and partitions are mounted.
There are several designs depending on the number of storeys, varieties of load-bearing partitions (external and internal) and walls. Redistribution of loads occurs depending on the type of structure.
The production of panels is carried out at house-building plants in several ways:
- vertical formation in cartridges;
- conveyor method;
- vibro-rolling in a special mill.
The disadvantages of panels include the impossibility of changing the geometry of the premises, only a strictly rectangular shape. In low-rise construction, innovative SIP panels are used, which are not so durable, but retain heat well. In the “skyscrapers” foam polystyrene structures have been developed combining insulation and concrete poured inside. These panel structures are additionally soundproofed and guarantee a peaceful stay.
A serious drawback of old prefabricated houses is the presence of seams and gaps between the finished structures, in which, with poor sealing, the wind often blows, moisture from precipitation falls, heat intensively leaves in the winter. All these shortcomings are eliminated by facade insulation with thermal insulation, which is applied simultaneously with the installation of communications and interior decoration. New technology does not delay the main stages of construction and the timely completion of the facility.
New technologies in construction allow you to perform work in a short time, improve the thermal and waterproofing characteristics of buildings. Manufacturers are improving the compositions, the list of modern materials includes polystyrene concrete, aerated concrete, waterproofing membranes, anti-corrosion compounds, etc.
Among the popular technologies due to the low price is the wireframe method. The method is simple, environmentally friendly, optimal for the construction of multi-family housing and prefabricated houses for cottage villages.
The structure is mounted after the formation of a concrete or pile foundation. The type of foundation is selected in accordance with the type of soil, the mass of the building. For the frame, beams made of wood or metal are used.
For fastening steel pipes, it is necessary to drill holes for self-tapping screws, connecting screws or the use of welding equipment.
The formation of wooden structures does not require sophisticated equipment. The installation of wooden frames simplifies the geometric shape of the beam. When assembling the beams are connected vertically, horizontally, diagonally. The strength of the structure is increased by sealants.
- OSB slabs supplemented with hydro- and heat-insulating raw materials;
- SIP panel panels with insulation that protects against humidity and temperature changes.
Method advantage in:
- low price;
- fast pace of construction work;
- simple installation;
- the ability to do work at any time of the year;
- lack of need for special equipment, loaders;
- lightweight foundation that reduces costs.
The know-how includes 3D-panels, which are an advanced method of frame-panel assembly. The method is popular in the construction of budgetary residential and industrial buildings.
3D panels are produced using innovative technology that allows the processing of construction industry waste. Materials are mixed with cement and poured into a blank in the form of a wall panel.
After printing is completed, the finished wall is released. Plates remain hollow and are filled with foam concrete. For strength and durability of the structure, wall panels are reinforced with a reinforced frame from 2 sides. The plates are fastened with metal rods.
Technology advantage in:
- low cost of production;
- small mass of the structure;
- the ability to perform work all year round;
- reducing damage to soil integrity;
- reduction of heat losses due to improved polymer raw materials.
However, it is necessary to take into account the increase in financial costs when performing author’s design projects. The building requires a quality ventilation system to prevent deformation of wall panels and damage by pests.
An innovation in construction is fixed formwork, the method is used for the construction of cottages, outbuildings, etc.
On the basis of concrete, formwork is constructed from panels or blocks. Elements are distributed at equal intervals to create piers between which a reinforced mesh is installed. The voids are poured with concrete mixture. External walls after concrete adhesion perform the functions of insulation.
Advantages of the method in:
- simplicity of construction work;
- low labor costs, as Specialists are required only when laying the foundation and installing ceilings;
- environmental friendliness;
- reducing the cost of building materials, t, k. a building constructed by the method of fixed formwork does not require additional insulation.
New materials and their features
Innovations are made in the field of building materials. Developers create raw materials, fastening compounds, increasing thermal insulation, noise insulation, reducing maintenance costs, increasing the service life of buildings.
The list includes:
- polystyrene concrete;
- aerated concrete;
- membranes (waterproofing, diffusion);
- thermal insulation compounds based on polyurethane foam;
- polystyrene foam compositions with improved thermal insulation qualities;
- mineral wool for building insulation;
- artificial stone for decorating buildings;
- foam concrete blocks;
- glued beam;
- SIP panels.
Polystyrene concrete is one of the best artificial stones in terms of vapor permeability, strength, environmental friendliness, hygroscopicity. The texture of the material is similar to wood, it is characterized by low thermal conductivity. When using raw materials, additional insulation is not required.
Polystyrene concrete is resistant to mold damage, fungus. Raw materials are not very expensive, can be formed on a construction site, and do not require loader rental.
Aerated concrete blocks are aesthetic, have a small mass. However, it is necessary to take into account the instability of the material to moisture. During installation, it is important to provide reliable waterproofing to the walls, to perform plastering of surfaces.
Foam concrete is notable for its small mass, budget cost, versatility, environmental friendliness. During construction, it is recommended to take into account the fragility of the composition, which makes it difficult to install hinged structures and equipment on panels. Recommended wall reinforcement, the use of anchor bolts. The height of the buildings of foam concrete blocks is limited to 1-2 floors.
Membranes are designed to increase the durability of the building. Materials protect wall panels, roofs from moisture, wind. Elements provide reliable waterproofing of the building, are durable, ductile. Membranes are mounted with a construction gun.
Glued beams are environmentally friendly, durable, and durable. The geometric shape simplifies the assembly and insulation of structures. The bar is aesthetic, does not require decoration.
Improving and impregnating compounds. Roofing waterproofing and sealing mastics, additives in concrete, impregnating and injection compounds, paints and varnishes for anticorrosive protection of metal, dry building mixes, etc. are popular.
New forms of dormitories, wooden skyscrapers and prefabricated buildings – technologies open up tremendous opportunities for construction companies. But while construction is still living by mid-19th century standards. Analysts at CB Insights have found that they will determine the changes in housing in the near future.
According to PwC, US construction companies annually invest in research and development only 0.5% of revenue. At the same time, automobile companies invest 3.7%, while computer and electronics manufacturers – 8.8%. Not surprisingly, in these conditions, the housing industry works according to the standards of the mid-19th century without any changes. Builders still carry out routine tasks, using techniques worked out over decades.
At the same time, the situation in the US housing market is deteriorating every year. The country lacks 7.3 million homes, and their prices continue to rise. In 2017, the growth was 6.2%. This is two times higher than income growth, and three times higher than inflation.
One of the main problems analysts at CB Insights call scaling. Companies do not have a standardized approach to architectural design, preparatory work and construction. Because of this, every home today is being built as a new project from scratch.
However, small startups are beginning to change the situation. In 2018, construction technology companies entered into 45 major transactions with investors. The leader was the American Katerra, which in the round of financing D raised $ 865 million for the construction of houses on the basis of the constructor.
Assembling houses from finished parts is just one of the trends in the construction market. Analysts at CB Insights gathered the main trends of the near future, and we selected five of the most interesting from them.
Factory assembly and design principle
The new approach should solve the aforementioned scaling issue. The construction process must be transferred from the construction site to the factory. This approach will allow you to simultaneously produce several components of the building, and then assemble them as a LEGO constructor.
Modular construction – the so-called prefabrication – has been practiced for more than a decade, but so far this approach has not been widely applied. In the United States, several startups are working on factory building technologies.
Brooklyn Fullstack Modular uses the “building info management” method and flexible design. All components are designed at an early stage, and the final assembly takes much less time. Startup Blokable designs houses and housing blocks on an all-inclusive basis – they are already equipped with electrical wiring, pipes and household appliances. One block costs from $ 58,000 to $ 85,000, and if necessary, you can create buildings of five floors from the modules.
Total control over production and supply
The construction process is often delayed due to broken supply chains and the entire logistics chain. The American company Katerra, one of the giants of the innovative construction industry, is planning to take control of all areas. The company already has more than 1,400 employees, and the company’s total capitalization is estimated at $ 1.16 billion.
Katerra independently designs, manufactures modular components, delivers them to the construction site and installs them according to their standards.
The creators of the company compare their activities with the work of the conveyor, which steadily releases the product one after another.
This approach allows Katerra to build buildings 40% faster than competitors do. The startup has already collected pre-orders worth more than $ 1 billion and is working on twelve multi-apartment buildings. In 2019, Katerra is going to open six factories for the production of building modules.
The use of wood-based materials for the construction of multi-storey buildings reduces by 40% the mass of the structure in comparison with steel and by 60% in comparison with concrete. Thanks to this, the costs of building the foundation are reduced. So far, buildings of this type are being built mainly in North America, but soon they will appear in other countries.
One in four Americans gives over 50% of their monthly rental income. In these conditions, technology companies decided to revive the concept of a hostel, making it more comfortable and attractive. Coaling residents rent small apartments without a kitchen and without a living room – these zones have to be shared with neighbors.
WeWork startup is engaged in the construction of residential coliving complexes in the USA, but so far without success. Since 2016, the company has opened only two hostels and put the project on hold.
Startup Starcity rents residential complexes or buys them from the owners, and then converts them into co-colings, including additional services, such as Wi-fi access or housekeeping service. Residents pay rent of about $ 1800 per month. Starcity has already equipped three buildings for coliving, the project has another 9. Moreover, the number of customers on the waiting list has already exceeded 8,000.
Ambitions of IT companies
Large IT corporations are gradually being included in the process of building innovative housing. Companies are building not only traditional campuses, but also equipping urban recreation areas and designing affordable housing.
in 2021, it will complete the construction of the Willow Village microdistrict, on whose territory 1,500 apartments will be built. Of these, 225 will be sold at a price lower than the market average.
In December 2017, Google received permission to build a residential complex of 9850 apartments. The company’s subsidiary, Sidewalk Labs, also plans to build a smart district in Toronto with an area of more than 510 thousand square meters. The territory will be equipped with special sensors for collecting and analyzing data, and apartments, offices, retail space and parking lots will simultaneously be located in houses.
The latest technology in construction. Modern house construction, basic properties and characteristics:
In the construction of residential buildings and farm buildings, new technologies are increasingly being used today. For the construction of buildings using modern materials that have excellent performance, reliable, environmentally friendly and durable.
What are the latest technologies in construction can be used?
Innovative in our time include the construction of houses from:
- glued beams;
- foam concrete blocks;
- aerated concrete blocks;
- SIP panels.
Even when using conventional construction technologies, modern methods of decoration, hydro and thermal insulation, pouring of walling, etc. can be applied.
Properties of glued beams
This new material is most often used for the construction of houses and baths. New modern construction technologies are not always cheap. Glued timber refers to materials to some extent elite. Since it is quite expensive, household buildings are rarely erected from it.
The main advantage of this new material is durability and precisely calibrated geometric shapes. Due to the special configuration of glued timber, it is very easy to assemble houses from it. In addition, unlike profiled, such material does not shrink.
The buildings erected from it look very modern and neat.
However, glued burs has one small drawback. The fact is that glue is used in the manufacturing process. As a result, such an important indicator as environmental cleanliness worsens.
New technologies in the construction of houses, involving the use of glued beams, are not particularly difficult. However, when choosing this material itself, experts advise to pay attention to the manufacturer. To buy such a bar is only from trusted companies. Material purchased from an unknown company may be of poor quality. In this case, the walls assembled even with all the recommendations can subsequently shrink, crack, begin to rot, etc.
Advantages and disadvantages of foam concrete blocks
The latest technologies in construction involve the use of not only natural materials processed in a special way, but also made artificially. For example, country houses are very often built today from foam blocks. Such buildings are distinguished by simply remarkable operational characteristics. The advantages of foam blocks include:
- ability to “breathe”;
- excellent heat-preserving qualities;
- light weight;
- ease of use.
Foam blocks are laid on glue. Moreover, it is applied, unlike a cement mortar, with a very thin layer. As a result, cold bridges do not form in the walls.
But, of course, this material has its drawbacks. These include primarily fragility. When erecting walls made of foam concrete, be sure to use reinforcement. In addition, foam blocks are afraid of moisture. That is, for example, a bathhouse is not worth building from them. Even residential buildings built from this material must necessarily be additionally sheathed with finishing material or trimmed with special plaster.
New technologies for the construction of private houses: aerated concrete blocks
This is another material that has gained immense popularity among the owners of suburban areas. Like foam concrete, it is a special man-made stone with a large number of small voids inside.
Due to this structure, blocks of this type retain heat very well and are lightweight. The advantages of aerated concrete, among other things, include the ideal geometry of shapes. Finishing walls from this material is very easy, because they have a perfectly smooth surface.
To build a house from aerated concrete blocks can be very fast. However, such walls also require reinforcement.
Features of SIP panels
New technologies in construction, which came to us from other countries, often allow the construction of low-cost buildings with excellent operational characteristics. In cottage residential and summer cottages today quite often you can see light houses from SIP panels.
The technology of building buildings from this material is called Canadian. The fact is that it was invented in this cold country. The main advantage of SIP panels is that with their use it is possible to build very warm houses.
The advantages of this material can also include:
- Easy to install. You can assemble a Canadian house in just a couple of weeks. At the same time, it is completely optional to hire a construction team. The technology of building houses from SIP panels is very simple. They are attached to the timber using self-tapping screws.
- The simplicity of the finish. The walls of houses made of SIP panels are characterized by perfect evenness.
- The ability to quickly redevelop. Installing new or removing old partitions in such a house will not be difficult.
- High degree of sound insulation. From the side of the street, no sounds penetrate such houses.
The latest technologies in construction, of course, can have not only advantages, but also disadvantages. The main disadvantage of SIP panels is that they completely do not let air through. Expanded polystyrene, which is also considered not too environmentally friendly material, is used as a heater in their manufacture. In addition, such stoves burn well.
Today on sale you can find including SIP panels with mineral wool. The risk of fire when using such a material is significantly reduced. However, mineral wool also has a rather significant drawback – it is afraid of moisture.
What new technologies are still being applied?
Among other things, in our time, such latest technologies in construction can be used as:
- penetrating waterproofing of foundations, walls and other concrete structures:
- pouring walls using mortar and fixed formwork;
- assembly of frameworks LTSK.
What is penetrating waterproofing?
In Europe, this technology of protecting buildings from moisture has been used for quite some time. It was first applied in Denmark. Penetrating waterproofing is a special composition intended for the treatment of foundations, walls and other structures built using cement mortar. After application to the concrete surface, it penetrates into the pores and, drying up, forms insoluble crystals. This eliminates the absorption of concrete water during the operation of structures.
What are thin-walled steel structures?
In the construction of various kinds of structures of a large area, new materials and technologies can also be used. In the construction of various kinds of hangars, warehouses and auxiliary premises, light metal profiles can be used. The frame of the structure is assembled from them.
Using technology LTSK erect attics, utility and residential buildings. But more often hangars for various purposes, storage and auxiliary premises are assembled on the profile frame. The advantage of such a metal base is primarily ease of assembly.
If necessary, the structure can be easily dismantled and put in a new place.
The disadvantages of LTSC include, first of all, deformation under significant temperature fluctuations and the inability to achieve high energy efficiency. Steel structures, unlike wooden ones, can freeze during the winter period.
The high cost and complexity of the construction of buildings and structures by traditional methods is the main reason for the need to use new technologies in construction. The use of modern materials allows you to collect reliable structures quickly and with minimal cost. That is why SIP panels, foam concrete blocks, glued beams, etc. are becoming more and more popular. In most cases, in our time, houses are built with their use.
The pace of housing is gaining momentum. New technologies have appeared that diversified the architecture of residential buildings, the layout of apartments has significantly improved.
Heat-saving materials have reduced the cost of heating buildings, and improved the comfort of the living owners. New environmentally friendly finishing materials diversified and improved the interior of living quarters.
More details about how housing is currently being built are in this information material.
New technologies made it possible to diversify the external and internal architecture of multi-storey residential buildings. Construction itself is developing in three directions:
- Monolithic frame housing construction is widespread. It allowed to diversify the internal layout and building facades. Each built house has its original appearance. They received additional earthquake resistance and solidity of the entire structure. This technology has allowed the use of modern lightweight heat-saving building envelopes in the form of blocks of foam and aerated concrete. In addition, all modern housing facilities are additionally insulated with various polymer effective heaters. For the decoration of facades, plasters, putties and paints of various original colors that are resistant to external influences are used.
- The construction of prefabricated multi-storey houses was also further developed. New production lines with flexible technologies have appeared at house-building factories, which made it possible to diversify the architecture of such buildings. The possibility of organizing continuous and thorough laboratory control in the factory has significantly improved the quality of prefabricated housing construction. In the manufacture of exterior wall panels, the most modern heaters and finishing materials began to be used. Modern large-panel housing construction is significantly ahead of other technologies in terms of speed and quality of construction, but has a higher cost.
- Multi-storey buildings with load-bearing structures made of bricks and other durable wall materials have also not lost their positions. These classic technologies have stood the test of time and have many of their fans. Modern effective heaters and finishing materials have significantly improved their appearance and interior decoration.
These three main areas have some common trends. Metal-plastic windows, which are distinguished by excellent heat and sound insulation, durability and modern design, have become widely used.
Internal entrance doors have an attractive appearance and good resistance to unauthorized entry. Internal doors are made of MDF or solid wood and finished with veneer. Laminate, linoleum, parquet and porcelain stoneware are used.
For interior decoration, materials with high factory readiness and good quality are used. Most are environmentally friendly.
The presence of such a variety allows designers to create original interiors, which greatly improves the comfort of residential premises.
Almost all newly built multi-storey residential buildings are equipped with underground parking lots or individual utility rooms. They have landscaped areas with playgrounds.
Low-rise construction of country houses
Building a solid modern home on earth is not so simple. We have to draw up a lot of approvals and permits. Particularly acute is the question of connecting the house to existing engineering networks.
The situation is much more complicated if there are no such networks or they are under construction. But everything is solved much easier if you turn to well-known construction companies that specialize in the construction of country houses.
The company’s engineers will perform all the work on the coordination, design and construction of a turnkey house. Such experienced builders will offer the most optimal home design options. They use effective pile or bored foundations and lightweight wall materials.
The following technologies are mainly used for the construction of low-rise buildings:
- A monolithic reinforced concrete frame, which is filled with wall material from lightweight foam blocks, followed by insulation of the facade with polystyrene foam and finishing with facade putties.
- Classic technology with load-bearing walls made of brick or shell rock and floors made of prefabricated reinforced concrete slabs.
- Combined options when running a monolithic frame and load-bearing walls.
- Wooden houses from the factory log house are becoming more common. New technologies for processing and protecting wood from decay have literally transformed the appearance of such relatively inexpensive houses. These houses are built in a matter of days and are distinguished by reliability and durability. The most modern roofing materials are used for coating.
Each country house has its own personal plot, which should be landscaped and have a decent view. Therefore, one cannot do without a competent design project. On the site are usually located various courtyards, a well and a septic tank. All these facilities must be built in accordance with the relevant sanitary standards. Therefore, without a full-fledged project for the entire construction, you can not do.
Equally important is the correct choice of the method of heating the entire house. For this, there are modern heating equipment with maximum use.
Construction technologies are being improved with incredible swiftness, which cannot be said about residential buildings under construction. But recently, new building materials have been created that several times reduce the carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere by residential buildings, increase their heat saving, and significantly reduce maintenance costs.
In recent years, several new self-healing materials have already been created, revolutionary methods of heating and cooling buildings have been developed. New technologies are being introduced that allow homes, like plants, to cleanse the environment from urban smog.
1. New building material – energy-efficient 3D-printed brick with cooling
One of the new technologies in construction is brick, which is made of ceramic using Cool Brick technology developed by Emerging Objects. It has a small, multi-porous structure, various sizes and shapes. The walls made of this brick are a grid, which is an excellent alternative to the traditional air conditioning system in hot, dry climates.
The fact is that Cool Brick, in fact, is a sponge consisting of many pores that absorb moisture, that is, are almost filled with water. The hot air passing through it, absorbing moisture, cools well.
The method developed by this company allows printing ceramic bricks using a 3D printer. At the same time, the construction made of this brick allows you to fully implement the traditional method of independent cooling of the premises.
Fig. 1 New building material – brick with cooling
2. New technologies in construction – smog-absorbing buildings
It certainly sounds fantastic, but this technology already exists. Visually, it may seem that a building constructed according to this system does not have much beauty, but this is only at first glance. It has something exotic in it. This appearance is given to the building by biodynamic white concrete , capable of absorbing particles of smog from the atmosphere, converting them into an inert salt. So there is a complete cleansing of the smog of the environment. Fig. 2 New technologies in construction – smog-absorbing buildings
3. New technologies in construction – alternative algae energy
The first house in the world to generate electricity from algae was built in the German city of Hamburg. The building was built as an experimental structure and is used by a testing center that develops new ideas for energy supply of the city.
Thanks to new technologies in construction , on the facade of this building are biological reactors with seaweeds in them, which are constantly blown with air, which supplies them with carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
All conditions similar to their permanent marine habitat are created for algae. In the warm season, especially in direct sunlight, algae begin their intensive growth, creating a normal shadow and generating electricity, as well as biomass for food.
The result is excellent energy savings.
Fig. 3 New technologies in construction – alternative algae energy
When designing the construction of a building, the question of its durability is almost constantly raised. No one has the desire to spend huge amounts of money and waste time on its capital reconstruction. But researchers from the Netherlands managed to solve this problem. They managed to develop a new type of building white cement , which can be restored spontaneously with the help of a certain type of bacteria and calcium lactic acid.
The living bacteria contained in the cement slurry absorb calcium lactic acid and then produce limestone. And he, in turn, fills all microcracks and pores, while restoring the microscopic destruction of concrete to its original state.
Fig. 4 New building material – self-healing concrete
5. New technologies in construction – glass roofing
SolTech from Switzerland has developed a unique glass roof tile for roofing buildings. At the same time, the solar cells built into the tile through which the sun’s rays pass are used to heat the water, and it, in turn, is used for the heating system and the generation of electrical energy. Due to this quality of glass tiles, a considerable energy saving is obtained when using. Also read about rubber tile this article.
Fig. 5 New technologies in construction – glass roofing
6. New building material – mushroom house
Everyone knows such a product, donated by nature, as a mushroom. But no one knows that it can also be a good new building material. For example, Ecovative has developed and implemented a method of constructing the world’s first mushroom mycelium house. The house is 2.1 meters wide and 3.6 meters long and fits freely in a car trailer.
Fig. 6 New building material – mushroom house
The company sees the mushroom as a sustainable, and environmentally friendly building material. In addition, the mushroom is quite fire resistant, has the qualities of good noise protection, and excellent insulation. Read the advantages and disadvantages of various heaters here.
Thanks to the latest technologies, it will not take much time to build your own country house. If earlier the construction of the building could take a time period of one year or more, now new technologies are widely used in the construction of houses, which in a matter of weeks allow building a rather solid and individual dwelling.
Many construction technologies have come to us from abroad, but have already managed to gain recognition. One of these technologies is the construction of prefabricated frame houses, which are increasingly used in the modern construction industry.
What is such a design? Based on the name, this is a frame structure made of metal or wood, sheathed with finishing and insulation materials. The walls of this structure are made of several layers, the simplest and quite easy to assemble is a wooden frame.
The device design of a wooden frame house
Tip. The only thing that needs to be considered is the quality of the source material. Wood must be dry and treated with special agents.
The best material is glued beam, all boards are aligned in the direction of the fibers and processed according to a certain technology, after which they are glued under a press. The material is durable and does not lend itself to deformation (to dry out or dry up, crack), which will allow the structure to extend the operational period and improve quality.
The frame of the house from glued beams
The metal frame is distinguished by its strength and durability. It is reliable and is not exposed to various influences of climatic or weather phenomena. The disadvantage of the frame is poor thermal insulation of the material, so additional heaters will be required.
Metal frame of a private house
Very often, mineral wool is used as insulation for the frame house. It is made of basalt rocks, which allows the material not to be exposed to high temperatures, the material is not combustible. Expanded polystyrene or polyurethane foam is also widely used for these purposes. Such heaters can hardly ignite, and when melted under the influence of high temperature they are not able to emit toxic substances.
Wall cladding frame house
Wall cladding in a frame house can be made with OSB sheets or from strong dense plywood.
These materials have the following properties:
- environmental friendliness;
- ease of installation;
The latter property relates most of all to those materials that are in a protected state, insulated and protected from moisture and sunlight. OSB or plywood sheets must be of sufficient thickness, which is at least 1.5 cm. Thinner structures of such materials will not have sufficient rigidity and strength.
Scheme of cladding and insulation of walls of a frame house
As fasteners for the material, wood screws are used. Holes are drilled in the metal frame, then self-tapping screws are driven. With a wooden frame, everything will be much simpler, since it is easier to attach a tree to a tree. This can be done with a hammer and a screwdriver.
Anything can act as a finishing material: plastic, siding, sandwich panels, lining and much more.
The world around us is becoming more and more perfect every day, progress is being observed in all sectors. Thanks to this, new materials and technologies appear in housing construction, which raise it to a completely different level. First of all, they allow you to carry out work at any time of the year, which positively affects the speed of construction of objects, and significantly improve their operational performance.
Characteristics and properties of modern materials
The choice of building material is influenced by cost, speed of wall construction, strength and thermal conductivity, the need for decoration. In low-rise construction in Russia today they are increasingly using:
- glued beam;
- foam and aerated concrete blocks;
- SIP panels.
This material can be called elite, as it costs a lot.
- precise geometric shapes;
- does not shrink;
- ease of assembly.
In addition to the high price, glued beams have another drawback that affects its environmental friendliness: the glue used in the manufacture.
Foam concrete blocks
Nowadays, in cottage construction, foam concrete blocks are quite often used, which:
- perfectly keep heat;
- have a small weight;
- normalize humidity;
- easy to install and process.
The disadvantages include fragility and hydrophobia. Therefore, when working with this material, it is necessary to use fittings and provide additional finish.
Aerated concrete blocks
The popularity is not inferior to the previous material. They are distinguished by large pores in their structure.
- light weight helps reduce the load on the foundation;
- ease of installation;
- precise geometric shapes make it easier to finish;
- the presence of plasticizers allows installation at low temperatures;
- reliability and durability;
- low cost;
For aerated concrete blocks, in addition to the outer cladding, insulation is required.
Increasingly, in low-rise construction, new technologies are used that are borrowed in other countries. Today, in cottage villages, you can often find warm and comfortable houses made of SIP panels made using Canadian technology.
- Ease of installation. The panels are fastened with screws to the beam. The term for building such a house is a couple of weeks.
- Easy to finish.
- Quick redevelopment if necessary.
- High rate of sound insulation.
The disadvantages include the fact that they practically do not pass air and belong to the group of combustible building materials.
New technologies in private housing construction
Traditionally, private houses were built of wood. Despite the high price, this technology is quite popular in our country. However, for the construction of private housing are increasingly used blocks, which are much cheaper than wood. An unconventional approach to construction is the TISE method.
What is TISE technology?
The technology involves the installation of pile elements or a columnar foundation, understaffed with a grillage.
The essence of the method is that the module is fixed at the location of the wall, later concrete is poured into it. The molds are dismantled after the solution has hardened and installed in another place.
- Lack of temperature bridges;
- No special equipment required;
- The ability to choose a composition for wall filler;
- For the production of work enough 2-3 people.
When building a house using TISE technology, it is important to control the construction process. So, every 4-5 rows a reinforcing mesh is laid, then the verticality of the wall being built is checked.
Frame house construction
The frame is assembled after pouring the foundation. The design represents the beam elements fastened among themselves, installed diagonally, horizontally and vertically. As the base, wood or metal is used.
The role of the lining is performed by walls, for the construction of which various materials are used:
- on a wooden frame made of OSB boards. Expanded clay, expanded concrete, lightweight fibrous materials are used as thermal insulation.
- stocked ready-made shields.
For the second option, you will have to use special equipment, since the shields are quite heavy. And to assemble them, observing the technology, is also quite difficult.
- For the construction of such a house, any foundation is suitable.
- Redevelopment does not require large investments.
- It makes it possible to increase the area of housing without special costs.
As the finishing of frame buildings, any material can be used without restrictions.
Reminded frame-panel method of assembly. The difference lies in the fact that they are manufactured under industrial conditions and are monolithic expanded polystyrene plates that are pre-reinforced and reinforced with meshes on all sides. They are connected with each other by metal rods passing through the entire structure diagonally. Buildings constructed from such blocks are durable, warm and economical.
- The frame of the house, in its classical sense, is absent with this technology. The panels, rigidly interconnected, form load-bearing walls, which after erection are covered on both sides with a concrete jacket.
- The panels are made of polymeric materials with a high energy efficiency index, therefore, heat loss will be negligible.
- Reduced construction time due to ease of assembly.
- Industrial production is a guarantee of the quality of individual elements, and therefore the building itself.
- The light weight of the panels eliminates the need to install a heavy foundation.
The cost of 3D panels cannot be attributed to the budget, but it is comparable to the price of foam and aerated concrete products.
Formwork, with this method, remains in place and turns into part of the wall or foundation. The installation principle is similar to brickwork. In the structural elements there are grooves or special joints made as locks.
Opposite blocks are fastened with ties. Reinforcement in this case is vertical. Filling is carried out in cycles; in one run, the height should not exceed 3-4 rows of blocks.
- The result is a monolithic structure that is reliable in itself. Fixed formwork forms an additional frame, which further strengthens the walls of the house.
- Monolithic walls put less pressure on the foundation, which allows to increase the number of storeys of the building.
- Foamed polystyrene is not only an excellent insulation, but also has good soundproofing characteristics.
- It is not necessary to rent expensive special equipment with this technology. And the pouring process itself is not particularly laborious.
- Finishing the exterior and interior of the building will not require extra costs, since the surface of the walls created by the blocks is smooth.
- The service life of such buildings, subject to technology, is at least a century.
The cost of a house built in this way will be significantly lower than brick or wooden.
Conclusion: Innovations in low-rise housing construction are aimed at solving specific problems. To predict what it will be in a couple of decades is almost impossible. But anyway, the latest technologies in construction will be aimed at providing comfort, efficiency, reliability and durability of our housing.
- 1 The process of building multi-storey buildings using monolithic technology
- 2 New technologies for panel housing
- 3 New technologies in the construction of private houses: an overview
- 4 How to build panel houses – technology and principles
- 5 Overview of the latest construction technologies
- 6 Five trends for future building construction
- 7 The latest technology in construction. Modern house construction, basic properties and characteristics:
- 7.1 What are the latest technologies in construction can be used?
- 7.2 Properties of glued beams
- 7.3 Advantages and disadvantages of foam concrete blocks
- 7.4 New technologies for the construction of private houses: aerated concrete blocks
- 7.5 Features of SIP panels
- 7.6 What new technologies are still being applied?
- 7.7 What is penetrating waterproofing?
- 7.8 What are thin-walled steel structures?
- 8 Modern house building technologies
- 9 6 new technologies in construction that can change the world
- 9.1 1. New building material – energy-efficient 3D-printed brick with cooling
- 9.2 2. New technologies in construction – smog-absorbing buildings
- 9.3 3. New technologies in construction – alternative algae energy
- 9.4 Fig. 3 New technologies in construction – alternative algae energy
- 9.5 5. New technologies in construction – glass roofing
- 9.6 6. New building material – mushroom house
- 10 New home construction technologies
- 11 What new and modern technologies are used in the construction of cottages?